The first thing that you can see, are the similarities. Indeed, the letters A, E; O; C ; K and T are similar to their French application, also quite similar to the English one.
The second thing that you may note, it is the presence of ‘fake friends’; some letters are similar, but denote different sounds.
B = V У = U (ou) P = R X = H H = N
In-between, there are letters which are similar to the Latin alphabet, but with different sounds from French
S = DZ J = Y/LLE
And of course, the unique Cyrillic letters:
Б б – b Г г – g Д д – d
Ж ж – j З з – z И и – i
Л л – l П п – p Ф ф – f
Ц ц – ts Ч ч – tch Џџ – dg Ш ш – ch sh
Finally, there are some “modified” letters, which sound like a combination of two letters.
Љ – Lj Њ – Nj Ѓ – Gj Ќ – Kj
It can look complicated, but for a French, it is not really. These letters look like they are formed from Л – Љ, Н-Њ, Г-Ѓ, К-Ќ respectively. You just add the sound [j] to pronounce them correctly. For example, the sound Љ, that we make by putting together two L and one E. Like in: paille, brousaille, volaille.
The same for Њ, in French we make this sound by putting together a G and an N, like in: gagner, magnières, pagner.
When you understand this, the Ќ and Ѓ sounds are not complicated anymore.
Written by: Paul Knecht-Deyber